Ginger Oil and Extracts Takeoka et al. (1990) determined that (-)-camphene was the predominant enantiomer in ginger oil. They also determined that the enantiomeric ratio of α-copaene was: (+)-α-copaene (81 percent): (-)-α-copaene (19 percent).
It was reported by König et al. (1994) that (+)-ar-curcumene and (-)-β-bisabolol were the predominant enantiomers in ginger oil.
Ginger oil produced from rhizomes grown in Madagascar was examined by Möllenbeck et al. (1997).