Pyrazines are materials obtained in Maillard reactions as by-products of the browning reaction of sugars and proteins or amino acids. These reactions occur during roasting, cooking, baking, and so forth of different food products. Pyrazines are the most widely distributed heterocyclic compounds in nature, having functional groups, e.g. alkyl, acetyl, alkoxy and thioalkoxy. Pyrazines containing these chemical functions are present mainly in roasted products, generally thermally treated, including cocoa, coffee, barley, popcorn, nuts, bread, potato and beef. Within all these pyrazines, over 70 pyrazines containing only alkyl groups have been identifi ed in heated foods.
A pyrazine for fl avors and fragrances Alkylpyrazines, which are key to the fl avor of chocolate, are formed via the Maillard reaction during the roasting process of cocoa production. Many of the pyrazines have a nut-like aroma similar to that of peanuts. The importance of these materials has historically motivated organic chemists to synthesize them for use as ingredients in flavor formulations for roasted nuts, chocolate, meat flavors, and so forth. By 1970, the first pyrazines obtained GRAS status in the United States for use as flavoring substances. Today, many pyrazines have commercial use in food applications.
Results and Discussion
Chocarom pyrazine is a colorless transpar– ent liquid consisting of a 1:1 isomeric mixture of 3,5-dimethyl-2-isobutylpyrazine and 3,6-dimethyl-2-isobutylpyrazine, as shown in F-1.