A number of years ago, Frey (1988) used the selective ion monitoring function of GC/MS to detect the addition of synthetic linalool and linalyl acetate by determining their impurities (dihydrolinalool and dihydrolinalyl acetate). He found that the addition of as little as 2% synthetic linalool and linalyl acetate to genuine bergamot oil could be detected.
Inoma et al. (1989) examined the composition of a commercial sample of bergamot oil available in Japan. The compounds identified in this oil were:
Zani et al. analyzed an Italian sample of bergamot oil (1991); it was found to contain the following major constituents: