Gosa et al. (1997) reported that Polish caraway oil normally contained limonene (45.6 percent) and carvone (49.3 percent) as major constituents. Braun and Franz (2001) examined four samples of caraway oil that were available commercially in Germany. In these samples, the myrcene (0.19-93 percent), limonene (39.44-48.16 percent) and carvone (48.83-55.07 percent) contents varied. Although DAB standards in Germany state that the amount of (4R)-(-)-carvone should be less than 1.0 percent in genuine oil, the authors found that two of the oils possessed levels of (-)-carvone of 5.19 percent and 3.23 percent, respectively, indicating that these two commercial oils were adulterated.
Bailer et al. (2001) determined the oil yield and composition of selected major oil components from the seed oils of 11 cultivars of caraway available in Austria. The results of this study can be found in T-1.
Chowdhury (2002) analyzed an oil produced from dried caraway fruit (seed) obtained from the Kumaon region of Uttaranchal (India).