Organoleptic Characteristics of Flavor Materials


This month’s column features discussions on cocoa extract, sunflower oil CO2 extract, barrel-aged oak fluid extract, methyl 3-hydroxybutyrate and more.

Hay Kiinotes

Supplier: Omega Ingredients

FEMA# 2013, CAS# 84082-36-0, natural, Medicago sativa, natural

Odor: @ 100%. Green, tea-like, grassy, musty and slightly cooked vegetable-like.

Taste: @ 0.1%. Green, tea-like, slightly creamy, cooked vegetable-like and slightly brown.

Possible applications: Green tea flavors like matcha, as well as herbals will be enhanced by the delicate top notes this material imparts. It can also be considered for tomato and cooked vegetable flavors.

Omega Ingredients:

Cocoa Extract / PGM_0055052

Supplier: Mane

GRAS, CAS# 84649-99-0, Theobroma cacao, natural

Odor: @ 100%. Sweet, powdery, dark chocolate, floral and tobacco-like.

Taste: @ 0.05%. Cocoa, dark chocolate, fudge-like and bitter.

Possible applications: This lovely cocoa extract is highly characteristic and will play a leading role in all things chocolate, including mocha and chocolate-covered ‘fill in the blank’ flavors.


Sunflower Oil CO2 Extract

Supplier: Vigon

GRAS, CAS# 8001-21-6, Helianthus annuus, natural

Odor: @ 100%. 0.1%. Oily, roasted, nutty, peanut-like, slightly burnt, slightly oxidized and slightly smoky.

Taste: @ 0.1%. Nutty, burnt, oily, roasted, slightly smoky and slightly oxidized.

Possible applications: With its nutty, roasted character and non-allergenic status this material will contribute character to peanut, pecan, almond and other roasted nut flavors. Other flavors where it can be used are sesame, toasted grains, coffee, bacon, grill and BBQ.


2-Ethyl-6-methyl pyrazine, natural

Supplier: Myrazine LLC

FEMA# 3919, CAS# 13925-03-6, natural

Natural occurrence: Barley, cocoa, coffee, peanut, tea and spike lavender.

Odor: @ 1%. Toasted, nutty, grain-like, slightly earthy and cocoa-like.

Taste: @ 2 ppm. Toasted, nutty, cocoa-like, slightly roasted and brown.

Taste: @ 4 ppm. Nutty, cocoa-like, grain-like and peanut-like.

Possible applications: More toasted than roasted, this pyrazine will enhance the character in grains like oatmeal and corn; nuts like pecan, almond, walnut, hazelnut and macadamia; pie and bread crusts; praline, toffee, chocolate, baked potato and browned butter.

Myrazine LLC:

Ethyl-3-mercaptopropionate natural, 1% in triacetin

Supplier: Natural Advantage

FEMA# 3677, CAS# 5466-06-8, natural

Natural occurrence: Cheese, Concord grape, papaya and wine.

Odor: @ 0.01%. Sulfurous, skunky, meaty, coffee, savory and bacon-like.

Taste: @ 0.2 ppm. Rubber-like, brown, savory and grape-like.

Taste: @ 0.5 ppm. Meaty, rubber-like, burnt, roasted and slightly smoky.

Possible applications: Overwhelmingly, this component is meant for savory types of flavors like roasted meat, coffee, bacon, ham and grill flavors. But at dosages of 0.2 ppm and below, it will add extraordinary Concord notes to a plain Jane grape.

Natural Advantage:

Barrel-Aged Oak Fluid Extract

Supplier: Horner International

FEMA# 2974, CAS# 539-88-8, Quercus alba, natural

Odor: @ 100%. Sweet, brown, woody, slightly smoky and vanilla-like.

Taste: @ 0.02%. Sweet, woody, smoky, phenolic and vanilla-like.

Possible applications: With its sweet, brown, smoky, vanilla-like notes, this extract will add depth and character to many sweet brown flavors including vanilla, maple, molasses, bourbon and Scotch whiskey, caramel, coffee and chocolate. On the savory side it will fit nicely into smoke, sausage, bacon, ham and most other cured meat flavors.

Horner International:

Nootkatone >90%

Supplier: Sigma Aldrich

FEMA# 3166, CAS# 4674-50-4

Natural occurrence: Citrus oils, valerian root and wormwood.

Odor: @ 1%. Terpeney, slightly waxy, woody, oxidized citrus and grapefruit-like.

Taste: @ 5 ppm. Oily, citrus-like, woody, slightly tropical and slightly terpeney.

Taste: @ 10 ppm. Bitter, citrus-like, astringent and grapefruit-like.

Possible applications: We usually see this compound as part of a citrus fraction. As a purer material, it will enhance citrus flavors which are based on citrus oils, especially grapefruit. Other flavor types where it can be well-used are tropical fruits like passion fruit, herbal types, alcoholic flavors like gin and perhaps bitters.

Sigma Aldrich:

Methyl 3-hydroxybutyrate

Supplier: Sigma Aldrich

FEMA# 4450, CAS# 1487-49-6

Natural occurrence: Pineapple, toronjo and tamarillo.

Odor: @ 100%. Tart, brown, fruity and fatty.

Taste: @ 20 ppm. Tart, fruity and waxy.

Taste: @ 40 ppm. Tart, juicy, fruity, astringent, waxy and apple skin-like.

Possible applications: The tart, general fruity notes of this ester will fit nicely into the ester complex of many fruit flavors including apple, pear, pineapple, peach and tropicals like lychee and guava.

Sigma Aldrich:

Labdanum Oil (cistus spp) organic

Source: Excellentia

FEMA# 2609, CAS# 8016-26-0, Cistus ladaniferus, natural

Odor: @ 100%. Sweet, woody, perfumey, spicy, cooling, terpeney and ambergris-like.

Taste: @ 0.5 ppm. Woody, terpeney, sweet, floral and sclareol-like.

Taste: @ 1 ppm. Powdery, terpeney, woody, cedar-like, slightly spicy and sclareol-like.

Possible applications: Apart from its use in perfumes, this fragrant oil will enlarge the profiles of anise, nutmeg, sensen, dark berries like strawberry and blackberry, citrus, vermouth and ‘fantasy’ flavors.


2-Methyl-4-propyl-1,3-oxathiane natural, 1% in EtOH

Supplier: Natural Advantage

FEMA# 3578, CAS# 59323-76-1, natural

Natural occurrence: Yellow passion fruit, pineapple, clary sage, whiskey and white wine.

Odor: @ 1%. Slightly savory, sulfurous, allieaceous, green and tropical.

Taste: @ 0.05 ppm. Sulfurous, tropical, green and passion fruit/guava-like.

Taste: @ 0.1 ppm. Green, guava-like, fruity and tropical.

Possible applications: The sulfurous, tropical fruit notes of this material will reinforce passion fruit, guava, rambutan, lychee, black currant, white grape and white wine flavors like sauvignon blanc. A touch in vegetable blends like tomato juice cocktails will add an interesting depth.

Natural Advantage:

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