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Progress in Essential Oils

By: Brian M. Lawrence
Posted: December 3, 2008, from the December 2008 issue of P&F magazine.

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  • From P&F Magazine
  • December 2008 issue, pg 52
  • 5 pages

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Hyssop Oil Renzini et al. (1999) determined that the main constituents of a hyssop oil produced from plants collected in the Piedmont region (Italy) were as follows:

α-pinene (0.6%)

sabinene (1.5%)

β-pinene (11.1%)

myrcene (2.1%)

limonene (12.2%)

pinocamphone (1.7%)

isopinocamphone (43.3%)

β-bourbonene (1.4%)

caryophyllene oxide (0.5%)

Garg et al. (1999) analyzed an oil produced from Hyssopus officinalis subsp. officinalis grown in an experimental garden in Lucknow (India). The composition of this oil was found to be as follows:

α-thujene (1.0%)

α-pinene (1.8%)

β-pinene (18.4%)

sabinene (1.3%)

limonene (5.6%)

β-phellandrene (4.2%)

(Z)-β-ocimene (0.1%)

pinocamphone (49.1%)

isopinocamphone (9.7%)

α-terpineol (0.5%)

myrtenol (0.7%)

sabinyl acetate* (0.5%)

methyl eugenol (0.2%)

β-caryophyllene (0.3%)

α-humulene (0.1%) (Z)-

β-farnesene (0.3%)

germacrene D (0.7%)

δ-cadinene (0.8%)

γ-elemene† (0.2%)

β-eudesmol (0.2%)

α-eudesmol (0.2%)

* correct isomer not identified; † incorrect identification based on GC elution order

It is known that three forms of H. officinalis subsp. officinalis occur: f. cyaneus Alef. (blue flowered form), f. ruber Mill. (pink flowered form) and f. albus Alef. (white flowered form). Chalchat et al. (2001) analyzed the composition of 12 oils produced from plants grown in Serbia. The results of this study are summarized in T-1. As can be seen from the results, the oils were grouped into five types depending upon the contents of major components. Also, it could be seen that the flower color (f. type) had no influence on the oil composition whatsoever.

Fraternale et al. (2004) analyzed oils produced from H. officinalis grown in two different locations near Urbine (Italy). The main components of the two oils are presented in T-2.

An oil of H. officinalis subsp. angustifolius produced from plants collected in the vicinity of Kose (Turkey) was the subject of analysis by Özer et al. (2005). The components characterized in this oil were:

α-thujene (0.1%)

α-pinene (0.8%)

camphene (0.1%)

sabinene (1.0%)

β-pinene (10.6%)

myrcene (2.5%)

α-terpinene (0.1%)

p-cymene (0.3%)

limonene (0.5%)

1,8-cineole (7.2%)

γ-terpinene (0.2%)

linalool (0.1%)

camphor (0.2%)

pinocamphone (19.6%)

pinocarvone (36.3%)

borneol (0.3%)

isopinocamphone (5.3%)

α-terpineol (0.8%)

myrtenal (0.3%)

pulegone (0.3%)

piperitone (0.4%)

thymol (< 0.1%)

piperitenone oxide (0.1%)

α-copaene (0.1%)

β-bourbonene (0.1%)

β-caryophyllene (0.4%)

β-gurjunene (0.1%)

γ-muurolene (0.3%)

germacrene D (1.0%)

bicyclogermacrene (0.6%)

γ-cadinene (0.1%)

δ-cadinene (0.2%)

spathulenol (0.9%)

caryophyllene oxide (0.1%)

Oils of hyssop of Bulgarian origin were found by Stoyanova and Grozeva (2006) to contain the following major components:

α-pinene (0.8–1.8%)

β-pinene (9.2–14.2%)

sabinene (2.0%)

myrcene (3.0%)

limonene (0.8%)

1,8-cineole (9.0–12.0%)

pinocamphone (38.4–46.5%)

linalool (1.8%)

camphor (8.0–12.5%)

geraniol (2.0–3.0%)

borneol (2.1–3.0%)

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