Amination of Alcohols and Fatty Acids
Reagents: AAmmonia, alkyl amine
Catalysts: Nickel, palladium, various known other reducing agents
Agricultural inputs: Alcohols, acids, aldehydes, ketones
Description: The process of introducing an amine into an alcohol or fatty acid.
Distillation of Essential Oils
Reagents: Water (high-pressure steam)
Agricultural inputs: Plant material (flowers, herbs, spices, etc.)
Description: The physical process to acquire essential oils from plant material.
Esterification OR Transesterification to Produce Esters
Catalysts: Sulfuric/phosphoric acid; KCO3, NaCO3, NaOH, or KOH
Agricultural inputs: Acid and alcohol, e.g. fatty alcohol, glycerin, ethanol, acetic acid
Description: The process of forming an ester bond between and acid and an alcohol, can be catalyzed by either an alkali or acid.
Etherification of Glycerin making PolyGlyceryls
Catalysts: Alkali (NaOH or KOH)
Agricultural inputs: Glycerin (product of fat-splitting)
Description: The process of forming ether bonds between two compounds of natural glycerin (see fat-splitting) to form polyglyceryls by heating with an alkali. Polyglyceryl products are indicated with a number to represent the number of glycerin molecules linked together.
Fat-Splitting of Oils to Produce Glycerin and Fatty Acids
Reagents: Water (high-pressure steam)
Catalysts: Metal/metal compound catalysts (zinc oxide, nickel, palladium, platinum)
Agricultural inputs: Triglyceride fats and oils; carbohydrates, sugars
Description: The process of splitting natural fats and oils into glycerin and fatty acids, a kind of hydrolysis.
Agricultural inputs: Carbohydrates, sugars, bacteria, yeasts, fungi
Description: The process of converting carbohydrates into alcohol and carbon dioxide or organic acids.
Glucosidation of Fatty Alcohol and Glucose
Catalysts: Toluene Sulfonic acid
Agricultural inputs: Glucose and fatty alcohol
Description: The process of attaching glucose to an alcohol, a type of etherification (e.g. coco glucoside).
Hydrogenation of Oils
Catalysts: Nickel, Platinum or palladium
Agricultural inputs: Triglyceride fat/oil usually
Description: The process by which unsaturated bonds are reduced by the addition of hydrogen with a catalyst, specifically converting unsaturated fatty acids to saturated ones or waxes to oils.
Hydrogenolysis of Methyl Esters of an Oil to Make Fatty Alcohols
Reagents: Hydrogen from natural gas
Catalysts: Methanol; nickel, platinum, palladium
Agricultural inputs: Methyl or ethyl ester of triglyceride fat/oil (fat/oil original ag input)
Description: The process by which hydrogen is utilized to break chemical bonds converting a fatty acid ester into the fatty alcohol and methyl or ethyl alcohol (whichever is used for the ester). This process can also be utilized directly on the fatty acid without conversion to the ester first.
Hydrolysis of Complex Proteins into Simple Amino Acids
Catalysts: Enzymes or alkali (KOH or NaOH)
Agricultural inputs: proteins, carbohydrates, sugars
Description: The process of breaking down complex proteins into water-soluble amino acids or peptides (if partially hydrolyzed).
Oxidation with Mild Agents
Reagents: Dilute H2O2, O2, silver and copper salts
Catalysts: silver, copper
Agricultural inputs: Plant-based alcohols, aldehydes
Description: The process by which alcohols and aldehydes are converted to acids by oxidation.
Protein Fragment Acylation to make e.g. Cocoyl Glutamate
Reagents: KOH or NaOH
Catalysts: Phosphorous trichloride or thionyl chloride
Agricultural inputs: Fatty acid and protein fragment
Description: The process of attaching a fatty acid to a nitrogen-containing compound. The fatty acid is converted to a fatty acid chloride before attachment to the nitrogen of a protein fragment (e.g. glutamic acid).
Saponification of Oils to Make Soap
Reagents: Alkali (KOH or NaOH)
Agricultural inputs: Triglyceride fats and oils
Description: The process by which fats or oils are split into the glycerin and the free fatty acids by the addition of an alkali, a type of hydrolysis.
Sulfation of Fatty Alcohol to make e.g. Sodium Coco Sulfate
Reagents: Sulfate/SO3 and NaOH
Agricultural inputs: Fatty alcohol
Additional note: Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS) from petrochemical sources not allowed Description: The process of converting a fatty alcohol into the sulfate ester to produce a surfactant.
Sulfonation of Non-Alcohols to make Sulfonated Anionics (α-olefins, methyl esters, etc.)
Reagents: SO2, SO3, Sulfuric acid
Catalysts: Metal/metal compound catalysts (copper, palladium)
Agricultural inputs: Methyl or Ethyl Ester of Triglyceride fat/oil (fat/oil original ag input), or α-olefin via dehydrated plant-based alcohol
Description: The process by which an SO3 group is attached to the carbon atom of α-olefins or esters.