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Progress in Essential Oils

By: Brian M. Lawrence
Posted: August 31, 2007, from the August 2007 issue of P&F magazine.

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13 pages available as a PDF download or printed copies mailed to you

Marjoram Oil and Extract

El-Ghorab et al. (2004) compared the composition of a hydrodistilled oil and a supercritical fluid CO2 extract of fresh marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) leaves collected from the mid-Delta region of Egypt. The results of these comparative analyses can be seen in T-1.

Marjoram oil produced from four collections of O. majorana from different regions of Turkey was analyzed by Tabanca et al. (2004). The compositions of the four oils are summarized as follows:

alpha-pinene (0.1–0.3%)

alpha-thujene (0.1–0.5%)

camphene (0–0.1%)

beta-pinene (0–0.2%)

sabinene (1.8–3.2%)

myrcene (0.5–1.6%)

alpha-phellandrene (0–0.8%)

alpha-terpinene (1.6–3.9%)

 limonene (0.8–1.6%)

1,8-cineole (0.1–0.4%)

beta-phellandrene (0.8–1.7%)

(Z)-beta-ocimene (0–0.1%)

gamma-terpinene (3.1–6.3%)

(E)-beta-ocimene (0–0.2%)

p-cymene (0.4–2.2%)

terpinolene (0.6–1.6%)

trans-sabinene hydrate (5.5–7.4%)

bicycloelemene (0–0.1%)

isomethone (0–0.1%)

linalool (1.6–5.0%)

cis-sabinene hydrate (30.4–44.2%)

linalyl acetate (6.8–9.6%)

trans-p-menth-2-en-1-ol (0.5–1.2%)

pinocarvone (0–0.1%)

bornyl formate (0.3–0.5%)

terpinen-4-ol (8.2–14.3%)

trans-dihydrocarvone (0–0.1%)

aromadendrene (0–0.l%)

terpinen-4-yl acetate (0–0.1%)

cis-p-menth-2-en-1-ol (0.2–0.6%)

pulegone (0–2.7%)

trans-pinocarveol (t–0.1%)

alpha-humulene (0.2%)

trans-piperitol (0.1–0.3%)

p-mentha-1,8-dien-4-ol (0–0.1%)

alpha-terpineol (3.9–6.9%)

ledene (0–0.1%)

germacrene D (0–0.1%)

neryl acetate (0.1–0.4%)

bicyclogermacrene (1.6–3.9%)

cis-piperitol (0–0.5%)

geranyl acetate (0.1–0.6%)

cuminaldehyde (0–0.1%)

nerol (0–0.2%)

trans-carveol (0–0.1%)

geraniol (0.1–0.5%)

p-cymenen-8-ol (0–0.2%)

ascaridole (0–0.1%)

piperitenone (0–0.6%)

caryophyllene oxide (0.1–0.4%)

methyl (E)-cinnamate (0–0.1%)

globulol (0–0.1%)

hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (0–0.1%)

spathulenol (0–0.4%)

isothymol (0–0.1%)

thymol (0.1–1.1%)

isocarvacrol (0–0.1%)

carvacrol (0.6–2.1%)

trans-alpha-bergamotol (0–0.1%)

caryophylla-2(12),6(13)-dien-5alpha-ol (0–0.1%)

caryophylla-2(12),6(13)-dien-5beta-ol (0–0.1%)

abietatriene (0–0.1%)

t = trace (< 0.1%)

Trace amounts (< 0.1%) of (E)-2-hexenal, 3-octanol, p-cymenene, nerol oxide, menthofuran, cis-isopulegone, trans-isopulegone, cis-dihydrocarvone, sabina ketone, allo-aromadendrene, carvenone, beta-bisabolene, delta-cadinene, gamma-cadinene, 2,6-dimethyl-(3E,5E,7)-octatrien-2- ol, geranyl acetone, cumin alcohol, T-muurolol and alpha-cadinol were also found as constituents of one or more of the Turkish oils of O. majorana.

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