Raw Materials Sponsored by
A short symposium was held by the Essential Oil Association on the problems affecting manufacturers and their supplies of both natural and synthetic raw materials. Four reports were given on various aspects of this subject and are summarized below:
Our subject is the future supplies of natural raw materials for the essential oil industry. We might divide these raw materials roughly into three groups: 1) those that serve as raw materials in the production of isolates, competing head-on with synthetics and including citronella, lemongrass, menthol, and clove leaf; 2) those that can be replaced by synthetic oils, such as anis, rose, fir needle, geranium, citrus oils, sandalwood mint oils, and floral extractives; 3) those that are not threatened by replacements–at least for the present– including cedarwood, eucalyptus, guaiaewood, lavandin, ocotea, petitgrain, patchouli, vetivert, and ylang.
A number of additional materials now being developed by Sicalav also were on display. These included fennel, clary sage and tree moss, The cooperative is working with the farmers to extend the range of essential oil and spice materials grown in this region of France,
Certainly the physiochemical limits established in our laboratories for those lavandin samples correlating to high olfactory ratings are not absolute, and examination of future crops may necessitate some modifications, Nevertheless, a study of the accompanying tables yields several interesting observations.
Methods leading to (–)-, (+)-, and (±)-carvone have been reviewed, The technical production of (–)-carvone is based on the widely available (+)-limonene; the most favored route is that epitomized in Chart 1. Though the steps involved are simple, their exploitation is a wellguarded secret, There is no similar commercialscale production of (+)-carvone because the basic materials for its synthesis are not as readily available. However, sooner or later the rising demand for this ketone will ensure that it, too, will be produced synthetically.
Hitherto a neglected p-menthadiene, a-phellandrene at long last has found a worthy place as a raw material for chemical processing, leading to valuable products such as thymol, menthol and p-menthenyl alcohols. Further research on this terpene should open up routes to many other interesting and useful chemicals.
Tagetes erecta, belonging to the order Compositae, is grown in Indian gardens and is commonly known as “Genda” in Hindi. Its leaves are good for piles, kidney troubles, and muscular pain; its juice is used for earache and opthalmia. The present paper deals with the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil extracted from its leaves by steam distillation in yield of 0.01%.
In a previous study of the chemical composition of the essential oil derived from the Algerian cypress, we compared the oil with oil obtained by steam distillation of the terminal branches of cypress trees from the Grasse area. We then noted some differences that affected the relative proportions of certain constituents. The richness in high constituents, in particular, prompted us to begin the study of this higher fraction. Cypress essential oil possesses a dry-down odor which is both woody and amberlike and is greatly appreciated by perfumers; this also makes it worth studying.
The transformation of Norda is nearly complete, and it is now poised to challenge the very largest international leaders in the flavor and fragrance industry.
Essence of Eriocephalus punctulactus is obtained by steam distillation of the blue flowers of a bush which grows at 3000 meters on the slopes of the Lesotho mountains in South Africa. Two other species of Eriocephalus--umbellatus and africanus—are known for their essences from flowers and leaves.