pf

Progress in Essential Oils: Thymol-rich Thymus vulgaris oils – Part 1

Contact Author Brian M. Lawrence, Consultant
Close
Fill out my online form.
Flowers

Author:

Author Bio

Tables

Tap Into Sensory Excellence! This is just part of the article. Want the complete story, plus a host of other cutting-edge technical and business articles to make your job easier? Login or Register for free!

It is well-known that various chemical forms or chemotypes are found in the oils of Thymus vulgaris L. However, the most commonly encountered oil form is that which is rich in thymol.

The composition of the oils of one of the clonal stock lines (a thymol-rich clone) of T. vulgaris grown in Sainte Fey (Quebec, Canada) was analyzed using GC/MS only by Bhaskara Reddy et al. (1998), and found to be as follows:

α-pinene (2.6%)

Want the rest of the story? Simply sign up to register. It’s easy. Plus, it only takes 1 minute and it’s free!

α-thujene (0.9%)

α-camphene (0.4%)

β-pinene (0.2%)

sabinene (0.1%)

δ-3-carene (7.1%)

myrcene (0.9%)

α-terpinene (0.4%)

limonene (1.2%)

1,8-cineole (1.1%)

γ-terpinene (0.2%)

p-cymene (20.8%)

terpinolene (0.2%)

p-cymenene (0.1%)

1-octen-3-ol (0.4%)

α-copaene (0.3%)

camphor (0.3%)

cis-p-menth-1-en-1-ol (0.2%)

linalool (13.3%)

β-caryophyllene (1.4%)

bornyl acetate (0.5%)

terpinen-4-ol (5.1%)

trans-p-menth-2-en-1-ol (0.2%)

isoborneol (0.4%)

verbenol* (0.5%)

α-terpineol (2.5%)

α-muurolene (0.2%)

δ-cadinene (0.7%)

anethole(0.1%)

caryophyllene oxide (1.1%)

cumin alcohol (0.1%)

thymol (18.1%)

carvacrol (8.9%)

*correct isomer not identified

incorrect identification or oil contaminant

 

Two commercial samples of thyme oil (T. vulgaris) that were purchased in Greece were found by Manou et al. (1998) to contain the following major constituents:

α-pinene (2.0–2.4%)

myrcene (1.2–1.5%)

p-cymene (23.1–28.7%)

γ-terpinene (5.9–9.1%)

linalool (5.1–5.8%)

thymol (38.6–43.0%)

carvacro l (2.2–9.8%)

β-caryophyllene (1.5–1.6%)

 

A number of oils obtained from T. vulgaris that were collected from different habitats in the Languedoc region (France) were determined by Thompson et al. (2003) to possess the following range of major constituents:

1,8-cineole (0–3.8%)

p-cymene (0–29.0%)

γ-terpinene (0–23.5%)

linalool (0.1–13.4%)

sabinene hydrate (0–3.3%)

terpinen-4-ol (0.1–5.0%)

α-terpineol (0–6.1%)

myrcen-8-ol (0–1.7%)

geraniol (0–8.9%)

thymol (21.4–72.9%)

carvacrol (0.8–26.8%)

β-caryophyllene (0.2–7.8%)

 

The thymol-rich chemotype of T. vulgaris that was collected in full flower from an experimental garden in Campinas (Brazil) was screened for its antimicrobial activity by Sartoratto et al. (2004). Analysis of this oil (produced in 0.56% yield) using GC-FID and GC/MS revealed that it possessed the following composition:

1-octen-3-ol (0.8%)

p-cymene (3.3%)

γ-terpinene (2.6%)

linalool (1.6%)

borneol (2.3%)

terpinen-4-ol (1.2%)

methyl thymol (0.8%)

thymol (79.2%)

carvacrol (4.6%)

β-caryophyllene (2.3%)

germacrene D (0.4%)

 

Seven commercially available thyme oils (T. vulgaris) from France and Italy were analyzed by GC-FID for known constituents. The constituents were found by Zamborelli et al. (2004) to quantitatively range as follows:

α-pinene (0.9–2.9%)

camphene (0.3–1.3%)

β-pinene (0.7–2.2%)

myrcene (1.2–2.4%)

δ-3-carene (0.5–2.0%)

p-cymene (21.5–44.9%)

limonene (0.5–1.3%)

γ-terpinene (0–17.3%)

linalool (1.9–3.7%)

borneol (0.6–2.2%)

terpinen-4-ol (0.6–4.5%)

thymol (22.1–38.5%)

carvacrol (1.1–1.9%)

β-caryophyllene (1.9–5.6%)

 

Dried thyme leaves (ex T. vulgaris) were purchased locally at a market in Davis (Northern California) and subjected to steam distillation under pressure for 3 hr. The oil, which was analyzed by a combination of GC-FID and GC/MS by Lee et al. (2005), was found to contain the following constituents:

α-terpinene (0.1%)

1,8-cineole (2.5%)

γ-terpinene (0.1%)

3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol(0.1%)

3-octanone (0.1%)

p-cymene (0.1%)

hexanol (0.2%)

(Z)-3-hexenol (0.1%)

cis-linalool oxidef (0.2%)

1-octen-3-ol (0.5%)

trans-sabinene hydrate (0.3%)

trans-linalool oxidef (0.2%)

camphor (1.5%)

linalool (4.8%)

terpinen-4-ol (1.1%)

menthol (0.1%)

trans-pinocarveol (0.1%)

δ-terpineol (0.4%)

trans-verbenol (0.1%)

α-terpineol (2.9%)

borneol (2.4%)

verbenone (0.9%)

dihydrocarveol (0.1%)

carvone (0.9%)

cis-linalool oxideP (0.1%)

citronellol (0.1%)

p-methyl acetophenone (0.1%)

cumin aldehyde (0.1%)

myrtenol (0.1%)

(E)-anethole (0.3%)

trans-carveol (0.1%)

p-cymen-8-ol (0.5%)

geraniol (0.3%)

guaiacol (0.1%)

2-phenethyl alcohol(0.2%)

caryophyllene oxide (0.4%)

1,1-dimethyl-2-phenethyl alcohol (1.6%)

(E)-cinnamaldehyde (0.2%)

elemol (0.1%)

cuminyl alcohol (0.2%)

spathulenol (0.4%)

eugenol (0.9%)

thymol (85.5%)

carvacrol (6.8%)

α-eudesmol (0.1%)

δ-selinene (0.1%)

methyl jasmone (0.1%)

caryophylla-4(12), 8(13)-dien-5β-ol (0.1%)

dihydroactinodiolide (0.1%)

caryophylla-3, 8(13)-dien-5-ol* (0.1%)

*collect isomer not identified

incorrect identification or oil contaminant

f = furanoid form

P = pyranoid form

 

In addition, trace amounts (20.05%) of 1-penten-3-ol, (E)-2-hexenal, (E,Z)-2,4-heptadienal, (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal, methyl 2-methylbutyrate, 5,6-epoxy-(E)-β-ionone, butyric acid, octanoic acid, decanoic acid, terpinolene, trans-p-menth-2-en-1-ol, bornyl acetate, methyl carvacrol, exo-methylcamphenilol, cis-dihydrocarvone, terpinen-1-ol, lavandulol, p-mentha-1,8-dien-4-ol, exo-2-hydroxy-1,8-cineole, trans-piperitol, trans-linalool oxide pyranoid form, piperitenone, perillyl alcohol, viridiflorol, T-muurolol, isospathulenol, methyl eugenol, p-cresol, 5-isopropyl-3-methylphenol and dillapiole were also listed as being found in this oil. Many of these trace constituents listed by the authors have never been previously found in a thymol-rich T. vulgaris oil so their purported characterization requires corroboration.

Ground thyme leaves that were purchased from a Spanish market were homogenized and subjected either to simultaneous distillation-extraction using methylene chloride as the solvent, or supercritical fluid CO2 extraction (for 25 mins at 40°C, 120 bar and CO2 density of 0.72 g/mL). Both the oil and extract were analyzed using GC/MS and GC-FID by Diaz-Maroto et al. (2005). The respective compositions of the oil and extract can be seen in T-1.

An oil of Thymus vulgaris produced from Italian grown plants was analyzed by Tognolini et al. (2006) using GC-FID and GC/MS. It was found to possess the following composition:

tricyclene (0.1%)

α-thujene (0.6%)

α-pinene (2.3%)

camphene (1.8%)

β-pinene (0.6%)

3-octanone (0.6%)

3-octanol (0.3%)

myrcene (1.6%)

α-phellandrene (0.2%)

α-terpinene (1.6%)

p-cymene (15.3%)

limonene (2.0%)

1,8-cineole (1.9%)

(Z)-β-ocimene (0.1%)

(E)-β-ocimene (0.2%)

γ-terpinene (5.6%)

cis-sabinene hydrate (0.7%)

terpinolene (1.0%)

trans-sabinene hydrate (0.1%)

α-thujone (7.3%)

allo-ocimene* (0.1%)

β-thujone (0.7%)

camphor (3.1%)

borneol (2.7%)

terpinen-4-ol (1.3%)

p-cymen-8-ol (0.1%)

α-terpineol (1.3%)

cis-dihydrocarvone (0.1%)

trans-dihydrocarvone (0.1%)

methyl thymol (0.6%)

methyl carvacrol (1.5%)

geraniol (8.3%)

geranial (0.6%)

bornyl acetate (0.8%)

thymol (6.8%)

carvacrol (8.0%)

α-terpinyl acetate (1.1%)

piperitenone oxide (0.1%)

geranyl acetate (3.9%)

β-bourbonene (0.1%)

isocaryophyllene (0.1%)

α-gurjunene (0.1%)

β-caryophyllene (3.2%)

β-humulene (1.5%)

allo-aromadendrene (0.2%)

γ-amorphene (0.3%)

viridiflorene (0.3%)

β-bisabolene (1.4%)

δ-amorphene (0.3%)

spathulenol (0.1%)

caryophyllene oxide (0.4%)

incorrect identification

 

Thymus vulgaris that was grown in the Botanic Garden of the University of Pécs (Pécs, Hungary) was harvested, air-dried and treated to hydrodistillation to produce an oil in 0.49% yield. Using GC-FID and GC/MS Horváth et al. (2006) determined that the oil possessed the following composition:

α-pinene (0.7%)

camphene (0.2%)

β-pinene (0.1%)

limonene (0.3%)

p-cymene (32.2%)

γ-terpinene (1.3%)

cis-linalool oxidef (0.9%)

linalool (1.9%)

borneol (1.6%)

β-caryophyllene (0.7%)

thymol (45.6%)

carvacrol (4.6%)

caryophyllenol* (1.2%)

f = furanoid form

*correct isomer not identified

 

An oil produced from Thymus vulgaris L. grown in Serbia was determined by Bozin et al. (2006) to possess the following composition:

α-pinene (0.2%)

camphene (0.4%)

β-pinene (0.2%)

p-cymene (0.8%)

limonene (0.2%)

1,8-cineole (1.9%)

γ-terpinene (8.3%)

2-nonanone (0.8%)

linalool (2.2%)

α-thujone (1.0%)

β-thujone (0.2%)

camphor (1.7%)

menthone (2.2%)

borneol (2.6%)

neomenthol (2.8%)

menthol (1.3%)

terpinen-4-ol (1.0%)

α-terpineol (0.6%)

pulegone (1.1%)

methyl thymol (0.3%)

piperitone (1.4%)

bornyl acetate (0.4%)

thymol (47.9%)

carvacrol (5.9%)

geranyl acetate (0.2%)

β-cubebene (3.4%)

β-caryophyllene (0.7%)

α-seliinene (0.3%)

γ-cadinene (0.5%)

myristicin (0.7%)

cis-calamenene (0.7%)

ledol(1.4%)

spathulenol (1.0%)

cadalene (1.8%)

apiole (0.4%)

incorrect identification or oil contaminant

 

As shown above,it would appear to this reviewer that the characterization of 2-nonanone, α-thujone, β-thujone, menthone, neomenthol, menthol, pulegone, piperitone, myristicin, ledol, cadalene and apiole may have arisen from some cross contamination either with the plant material or the oil as these are not normal constituents of thymol-rich oils of T. vulgaris.

Pavela (2007) screened the housefly against thyme oil. The oil used in this study possessed the following main components:

α-pinene (0.3%)

p-cymene (12.7%)

γ-terpinene (1.0%)

trans-sabinene hydrate (<0.1%)

linalool (4.3%)

α-terpineol (0.2%)

thymol (77.7%)

carvacrol (3.2%)

 

He found that thymol-rich T. vulgaris oil decreased the longevity of adult-flies and their larvae, as well as having a marked negative effect on the fecundity of both sexes. This means that the oil affected the reproduction cycle of adult flies and their larvae which would lead to a reduction of offspring when the oil was used.

An oil of T. vulgaris that was screened against two rice fungi by Nguefach et al. (2007) was determined to possess the following composition:

α-thujene (1.2%)

α-pinene (1.0%)

camphene (1.2%)

sabinene (0.4%)

β-pinene (0.3%)

myrcene (1.7%)

α-phellandrene (0.2%)

p-cymene (23.6%)

limonene (1.5%)

γ-terpinene (22.7%)

trans-sabinene hydrate (1.0%)

linalool (5.2%)

camphor (1.9%)

terpinen-4-ol (1.3%)

α-terpineol (0.3%)

thymol (27.2%)

carvacrol (3.3%)

β-caryophyllene (3.5%)

germacrene D (0.6%)

δ-cadinene (0.3%)

caryophyllene oxide (0.6%)

T-muurolol (0.4%)

T-cadinol (0.1%)

 

An oil of a thymol-rich clone of T. vulgaris produced from plants collected in Serbia was screened for its antibacterial activity (Sokovic et al. 2007) and antifungal activity (Sokovic et al. 2009). The oil was found to possess the following composition:

α-thujene (1.8%)

α-pinene (1.2%)

camphene (0.8%)

sabinene (0.6%)

β-pinene (0.4%)

myrcene (1.1%)

α-terpinene (0.7%)

p-cymene (19.0%)

limonene (0.5%)

1,8-cineole (0.7%)

(E)-β-ocimene (1.3%)

γ-terpinene (4.1%)

linalool (0.7%)

camphor (0.2%)

borneol (1.7%)

terpinen-4-ol (1.8%)

methyl thymol (0.2%)

methyl carvacrol (1.7%)

thymol (48.9%)

carvacrol (3.5%)

β-caryophyllene (3.5%)

α-humulene (0.3%)

germacrene D (0.3%)

α-cadinene (2.2%)

 

A sample of ground thyme (T. vulgaris) that was purchased in Poland was subjected to hydrodistillation to produce an oil that was analyzed using GC-FID and GC/MS by Kowalski and Wawrzkowski (2008). The constituents characterized in this oil were as follows:

α-pinene (0.8%)

camphene (0.6%)

sabinene (<0.1%)

myrcene (0.7%)

α-terpinene (0.8%)

p-cymene (22.3%)

1,8-cineole (0.7%)

γ-terpinene (3.6%)

linalool (2.5%)

camphor (0.5%)

borneol (1.5%)

terpinen-4-ol (0.7%)

methyl thymol (1.2%)

methyl carvacrol (0.8%)

piperitone (0.1%)

thymol (44.3%)

carvacrol (3.6%)

β-bourbonene (0.1%)

β-caryophyllene (2.2%)

(Z)-β-farnesene (<0.1%)

α-humulene (0.1%)

spathulenol (0.1%)

caryophyllene oxide (0.9%)

viridiflorol (0.3%)

humulene epoxide II (0.1%)

α-bisabolol oxide B (0.2%)

α-bisabolol oxide A (0.1%)

contaminant not a constituent of T. vulgaris oil

 

A thymol-rich commercial oil of T. vulgaris that was obtained in Germany which was analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS, was determined by Stoilova et al. (2008) to contain the following constituents:

α-thujene (2.0%)

α-pinene (2.1%)

camphene (0.9%)

1-octen-3-ol (0.1%)

β-pinene (0.4%)

myrcene (1.7%)

α-phellandrene (0.2%)

p-cymene (16.4%)

α-terpinene (1.5%)

limonene (0.7%)

β-phellandrene (0.6%)

1,8-cineole (0.4%)

γ-terpinene (8.0%)

cis-sabinene hydrate (0.1%)

terpinolene (0.1%)

trans-sabinene hydrate (0.3%)

linalool (4.6%)

terpinen-4-ol (1.1%)

α-terpineol (0.5%)

methyl carvacrol (0.5%)

thymol (49.6%)

carvacrol (4.0%)

β-caryophyllene (0.1%)

α-humulene (0.1%)

δ-cadinene (0.1%)

caryophyllene oxide (0.1%)

spathulenol (0.1%)

 

In addition trace amounts (<0.05%) of 3-octanol, carvone and thymol acetate were also characterized in this oil.

An oil produced from the fresh leaves of T. vulgaris that was produced from plants collected in Petrópolis (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) was the subject of analysis by Porte and Godoy (2008). The constituents characterized in this oil were:

1,3-octadiene (0.3%)

1,7-octadiene (0.1%)

2,4-dimethyl-2,4-heptadiene (1.5%)

α-pinene (0.8%)

camphene (0.3%)

sabinene (0.1%)

p-menth-1-ene (1.8%)

p-menth-3-ene (0.1%)

myrcene (2.4%)

α-phellandrene (0.3%)

α-terpinene (1.8%)

p-cymene (18.6%)

limonene (0.8%)

(Z)-β-ocimene (0.1%)

(E)-β-ocimene (0.1%)

γ-terpinene (16.5%)

p-mentha-3,8-diene (0.4%)

terpinolene (0.2%)

p-cymenene (0.1%)

borneol (0.5%)

trans-dihydrocarvone (0.2%)

methyl thymol (0.1%)

thymol (44.7%)

carvacrol (2.4%)

β-caryophyllene (0.8%)

δ-cadinene (0.1%)

incorrect identification or oil contaminant

 

Trace amounts of carvacrol and an isomer of calamenene were also found in this oil.

Thyme leaves ex T. vulgaris (presumed to be rich in thymol) were found by Wood et al. (2008) to contain 5 µg/kg of rotundone, a spicy compound with a low threshold.

A sample of thyme oil that was produced in the laboratory from commercially available thyme leaves (ex T. vulgaris) was examined by GC-FID and GC/MS (Chizzola et al. 2008). It was found to possess the following composition:

α-pinene (0.6%)

camphene (0.2%)

sabinene (0.2%)

β-pinene (0.5%)

myrcene (0.7%)

α-terpinene (1.1%)

p-cymene (13.1%)

limonene (0.4%)

1,8-cineole (0.6%)

γ-terpinene (5.6%)

cis-sabinene hydrate (0.5%)

linalool (2.2%)

camphor (0.3%)

terpinen-4-ol (0.7%)

α-terpineol (0.2%)

thymol (66.5%)

carvacrol (4.2%)

β-caryophyllene (1.2%)

 

The same authors also found that the oils produced from T. vulgaris leaves of various origins possessed compositions that ranged as follows:

α-thujene (0.5–1.1%)

α-pinene (0.8–1.3%)

camphene (0.6–1.2%)

sabinene (0–0.5%)

β-pinene (0.7–1.2%)

1-octen-3-ol (0–0.5%)

myrcene (1.2–2.2%)

α-terpinene (0.7–1.8%)

p-cymene (14.6–27.7%)

limonene (0–1.4%)

1,8-cineole (1.7–2.8%)

γ-terpinene (6.4–19.6%)

cis-sabinene hydrate (0.7–4.4%)

trans-sabinene hydrate (0–0.5%)

linalool (1.8–18.8%)

camphor (0.5–0.9%)

borneol (0.9–1.9%)

terpinen-4-ol (0.4–1.1%)

α-terpineol (0–0.7%)

nerol (0–0.4%)

methyl thymol (0–0.7%)

neral (0–0.2%)

methyl carvacrol (0–0.7%)

geraniol (0–2.0%)

geranial (0–0.3%)

bornyl acetate (0–0.3%)

thymol (20.4–36.6%)

carvacrol (2.6–5.9%)

β-caryophyllene (0.8–1.5%)

germacrene D (0.1–0.3%)

Related Content

 

Close

T-1

T-1

T-1. Comparative percentage composition of the oil and supercritical fluid CO2 extract of ground thyme leaves

References

References

M. V. Bhaskara Reddy, P. Angers, A. Gosselin and J. Arul, Characterization and use of essential oil from Thymus vulgaris against Botrytis cinerea and Rhizopus stolonifer in strawberry fruits. Phytochemistry, 47, 1515–1520 (1998).

I. Manou, L. Bouillard, M. J. Devleeschouwer and A. O. Barel, Evaluation of the preservative properties of Thymus vulgaris essential oil in topically applied formulations under challenge test. J. Appl. Microbiol., 84, 368–376 (1998).

J. D. Thompson, J-C. Chalchat, A. Michet, Y. B. Linhart and B. Ehlers, Qualitative and quantitative variation in monoterpene co-occurrence and composition in the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris chemotypes. J. Chem. Ecol., 29, 859–880 (2003).

A. Sartoratto, A. L. M. Machado, C. Delarmelina, G. M. Figueira, M. C. T. Duarte and V. L. G. Rehder, Composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from aromatic plants used in Brazil, Braz. J. Microbiol., 35, 275–280 (2004).

A. Zambonelli, A. Z. D’Aulerio, A. Sevei, S. Benvenuti, L. Maggi and A. Bianchi, Chemical composition and fungicidal activity of commercial essential oils of Thymus vulgaris L. J. Essent. Oil Res., 16, 69–74 (2004).

S-J. Lee, K. Umano, T. Shibamoto and K-G. Lee, Identification of volatile components in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and thyme leaves (Thymus vulgaris L.) and their antioxidant properties. Food Chem., 91, 131–137 (2005).

M. C. Diaz-Maroto, I. J. Diaz-Maroto Hidalgo, E. Sanchez-Palomo and M. S. Pérez-Coello, Volatile components and key odorants of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) oil extracts obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction and supercritical fluid extraction. J. Agric. Food Chem., 53, 5385–5389 (2005).

M. Tognolini, E. Barocelli, V. Ballabeni, R. Bruni, A. Bianchi, M. Chiavarini and M. Impicciatore, Comparative screening of plant essential oils: Phenylpropanoid moiety as basic core for antiplatelet activity. Life Sci., 78, 1419–1432 (2006).

G. Horváth, L. Gy. Szabó, E. Héthelyi and E. Lemberkovics, Essential oil composition of three cultivated Thymus chemotypes from Hugary. J. Essent. Oil Res., 18, 315–317 (2006).

B. Bozin, N. Mimica-Dukic, N. Simin and G. Anackov, Characterization of the volatile composition of essential oils of some Lamiaceae Spices and the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the entire oils. J. Agric. Food Chem., 54, 1822–1828 (2006).

R. Pavela, Lethal and sublethal effects of thyme oil (Thymus vulgaris L.) on the house fly (Musa domestica Lin.). J. Essent. Oil Bear. Plants, 10, 346–356 (2007).

J. Nguefack, S. K. Nguikwie, D. Fotio, B. Dongmo, P. H. Amvam Zolla, V. Leth, A. E. Nkengfack and L. Poll, Fungicidal potential of essential oils and fractions from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris to control Alternaria padwickii and Bipolaris oryzae, two seed-borne fungi of rice (Oryza Sativa L.). J. Essent. Oil Res., 19, 581–587 (2007).

M. Sokovic´, P. D. Marin, D. Brkic´ and L. J. L. D. van Griensven, Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils of ten aromatic plants against human pathogenic bacteria. Food, 1(2), 1–7 (2007).

R. Kowalski and J. Wawrzykowski, Effect of ultrasound-assisted maceration on the quality of oil from the leaves of thyme Thymus vulgaris L. Flav. Fragr. J., 24, 69–74 (2008).

I. Stoilova, S. Bail, G. Buchbauer, A. Krastanov, A. Stoyanova, E. Schmidt and L. Jirovetz, Chemical composition, olfactory evaluation and antioxidant effects of an essential oil of Thymus vulgaris L. from Germany. Nat. Prod. Comm., 3, 1047–1050 (2008).

A. Porte and R. L. O. Godoy, Chemical composition of Thymus vulgaris L. (thyme) essential oil from the Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil). J. Serb. Chem. Soc., 73, 307–310 (2008).

R. Chizzola, H. Michitsch and C. Franz, Antioxidant properties of Thymus vulgaris leaves: comparison of different extracts and essential oil chemotypes. J. Agric. Food Chem., 56, 6897–6904 (2008).

C. Wood, T. E. Siebert, M. Parker, D. L. Capone, G. M. Elsey, A. P. Pollnitz, M. Egger, M. Meier, T. Vössing, S. Widder, G. Krammer, M. A. Sefton and M. J. Herderich, From Wine to Pepper: Rotundone, an obscure sesquiterpene, is a potent spicy aroma compound. J. Agric. Food Chem., 56, 3738–3744 (2008).

R. Omidbaigi, S. Kazemi and E. Daneshfar, Harvest time effecting on the essential oil content and compositions of Thymus vulgaris. J. Essent. Oil Bear. Plants, 11, 162–167 (2008).

M-T. Golmakani and K. Rezaei, Comparison of microwave-assisted hydrodistillation with the traditional hydrodistillation method in the extraction of essential oils from Thymus vulgaris L. Food Chem., 109, 925–930 (2008).

M. P. Arraiza, M. P. Andrés, C. Arrabal and J. V. López, Seasonal variation of essential oil yield and composition of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) grown in Castilla—La Mancha (Central Spain). J. Essent. Oil Res., 21, 360–362 (2008).

A. E. Edris, A. S. Shalaby and H. M. Fadel, Effect of organic agriculture practices on the volatile flavor components of some essential oil plants growing in Egypt: III. Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil. J. Essent. Oil Bear. Plants, 12, 319–326 (2009).

R. Pavela, M. Sajfrtová, H. Sovová, J. Karban and M. Bárnet, The effects of extracts obtained by supercritical fluid extraction and traditional extraction techniques on larvae Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say. J. Essent. Oil Res., 21, 367–373 (2009).

M. D. Sokovic´, J. Vukojevic´, P. D. Marin, D. D. Brkic´, V. Vajs and L. J. L. D. van Griensven, Chemical composition of essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species and their antifungal activities. Molecules, 14, 238–249 (2009).

R. Kowalski and J. Wawrzykowski, Essential oils analysis in dried materials and granulates obtained from Thymus vulgaris L., Salvia officinalis L., Mentha piperita L. and Chamomilla recutita L. Flav. Fragr. J., 24, 31–35 (2009).

L. P. Roldán, J. D. Gonzalo and J. M. Duringer, Composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils obtained from plants of the Lamiaceae family against pathogenic and beneficial bacteria. Rev. Colomb. Cienc. Pecu, 23, 451–461 (2010).

M. Viuda-Martos, A. El-Nasser, G. S. El-Gendy, E. Sendra, J. Fernández-López, K. A. A. El-Razik, E. A. Omer and J. A. Pérez-Alvarez, Chemical composition and antioxidant and anti-Listeria activities of essential oils obtained from some Egyptian plants. J. Agric. Food Chem., 58, 9063–9070 (2010).

C. Grosso, A. C. Figueiredo, J. Burillo, A. M. Mainar, J. S. Urieta, J. G. Barroso, J. A. Coelho and A. M. F. Palavra, Composition and antioxidant activity of Thymus vulgaris volatiles: Comparison between supercritical fluid extraction and hydrodistillation. J. Sep. Sci., 33, 2211–2218 (2010).

S. Ozcakmak, M. Dervisoglu, C. Pembeci-Kodolbas and O. Sagdic, Effects of thyme and rosemary oils on the growth of two aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strains. J. Appl. Bot. Food. Qual., 83, 170–174 (2010).

A. Grigore, I. Paraschiv, S. Colceru-Mihul, C. Bubueanu, E. Draghici and M. Ichim, Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Thymus vulgaris L. volatile oil obtained by two different methods. Rom. Biotechnol. Letters, 15, 5436–5443 (2010).

E. Bosques-Molina, E. Ronquillo- de Jesus, S. Bautista-Banos, J. R. Verde-Calvo and J. Morales-Lopez, Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Rhizopus stolonifer in stored papaya fruit and their possible application in coatings. Posthavest Biol. Technol., 57, 132–137 (2010).

S. F. Hendawy, A. Azza, E. El-Din, E. E. Aziz and E. A. Omer, Productivity and oil quality of Thymus vulgaris L. under organic fertilization conditions. Ozean J. Appl. Sci., 3(2), 203–216 (2010).

A. Shafaghat and M. Shafaghatlonba, Comparison of biological activity and chemical constituents of the essential oil from leaves of Thymus caucasicusT. kotschyanus and T. vulgaris. J. Essent. Oil Bear. Plants, 14, 786–791 (2011).

A. R. Golparvar, Determination of the best harvesting times to obtain maximum dry herbage, essential oil and thymol yield in garden thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Internat. J. Life Sci. Medical Res., 1(1), 1–4 (2011).

M. Usai, M. Marchetti, M. Foddai, A. Del Caro, R. Desogus, I. Sanna and A. Piga, Influence of different stabilizing operations and storage time on the composition of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.). LWT-Food Sci. Technol., 44, 244–249 (2011).

S. Asbaghian, A. Shafaghat, K. Zarea, F. Kasimov and F. Salimi, Comparison of volatile constituents, and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the essential oils of Thymus caucasicusT. kotschyanus and T. vulgaris. Nat. Prod. Comm., 6, 137–140 (2011).

Z. Fathi, A. Hassani, Y. Ghosta, A. Abdollahi and M. H. Meshkatalsadat, The potential of thyme clove, cinnamon and ajowan essential oils in inhibiting the growth of Botrytis cinerea and Monilinia fructicola. J. Essent. Oil Bear. Plants, 15, 38–47 (2012).

E. Schmidt, J. Wanner, M. Hiiferl, L. Jirovetz, G. Buchbauer, V. Gochev, T. Girova, A. Stoyanova and M. Geissler, Chemical composition, olfactory analysis and antibacterial activity of Thymus vulgaris chemotypes geraniol, 4-thujanol/ terpinen-4-ol, thymol and linalool cultivated in southern France. Nat. Prod. Commun., 7, 1095–1098 (2012).

A. Nezhadali, M. Nabavi and M. Rajabian, Chemical composition of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris L. from Iran. J. Essent. Oil Bear. Plants, 15, 368–372 (2012).

D. A. Kaya, M. Arslan and L. C. Rusu, Effects of harvesting hour on essential oil content and composition of Thymus vulgaris. Farmacia, 61, 1194–1203 (2013).

G. M. Silva Goncalves, S. M. Srebernich, N. Bragagnolo, E. S. Madalozzo, V. L. Merhi and D. C. Pires, Study of the composition of Thymus vulgaris essential oil, developing of topical formulations and evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy. J. Med. Plants Res., 7, 1736–1745 (2013).

S. Turan, Efficiency of various plant essential oils in stabilization of canola oil and of its purified triacylglycerols. J. Essent. Oil Res., 26, 166–176 (2014).

M. Soleimani, A. P. Daryasari, A. Ghorbani, O. M. Hejri and R. Mazaheri, Analysis of the volatile compounds in Thymus vulgaris L. using improved HS-SPME-GC-MS and comparison with conventional methods. J. Essent. Oil Bear. Plants, 17, 1233–1240 (2014).

F. Nadjafi, M. M. Damghani, L. Tabrizi, and S. N. Ebrahimi, Effect of biofertilizers on growth, yield and essential oil content of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and sage (Salvia officinalis L.), J. Essent. Oil Bear. Plants, 17, 237–250 (2014).

S. Kizil, N. Hasimi and V. Tolan, Biological activities of Origanum, Satureja, Thymbra and Thymus species grown in Turkey. J. Essent. Oil Bear. Plants, 17, 460–468 (2014).

N. Duduk, T. Markovic, M. Vasic, B. Duduk, I. Viko and A. Obradavic, Antifungal activity of three essential oils against Colletotrichum acutatum, the causal agent of strawberry anthracnose. J. Essent. Oil Bear. Plants, 18, 529–537 (2015).

Author Bio

Lawrence, Author bio image

Brian M. Lawrence, Consultant

Next image >