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A short symposium was held by the Essential Oil Association on the problems affecting manufacturers and their supplies of both natural and synthetic raw materials. Four reports were given on various aspects of this subject and are summarized below:
Our subject is the future supplies of natural raw materials for the essential oil industry. We might divide these raw materials roughly into three groups: 1) those that serve as raw materials in the production of isolates, competing head-on with synthetics and including citronella, lemongrass, menthol, and clove leaf; 2) those that can be replaced by synthetic oils, such as anis, rose, fir needle, geranium, citrus oils, sandalwood mint oils, and floral extractives; 3) those that are not threatened by replacements–at least for the present– including cedarwood, eucalyptus, guaiaewood, lavandin, ocotea, petitgrain, patchouli, vetivert, and ylang.
With this issue we complete the first year of publication of Perfumer & Flavorist. We will take this opportunity to report to our subscribers regarding the aims of this publication as well as the future plans.
In 1976, the Japanese fragrance and flavor industry handled products and imports of essential oils, fragrances, aromatic chemicals, and fragrances and flavors for food and cosmetics in a total quantity of 31,801 tons and a value of 79,126 million yen. At present, it is hard for us to give any definite prediction regarding the extent of the further growth which the fragrance and flavor industry will attain along with the development of related industries for food, cosmetics, toiletries, and other household items in the domestic market. The future is unclear, i.e., it can be forecast either to be very promising or to be a period of depression.
When searching the perfumery or flavor use of a chemical, novel or not, two places in each classification system should be searched: all organoleptic use class(es), and the chemical per se class. At a minimum, the search should cover the U.S. Classification system, the International Patent Classification, the standard chemical literature (e.g. Beilstein and Chemical Abstracts), and the standard literature of our industry: Bedoukian’s Perfumery and Flavoring Synthetics, Arctander’s Perfume and Flavor Chemicals (Aroma Chemicals) Vol. I and II, and the Fritzsche library bulletin.
Some people claim they can upon command recall specific odors, others think not and argue that such memories consist only of sensory attributes from other modalities. Unfortunately, there seems to be no simple experimental test of such recall for the simple and basic reason that one can not observe another person’s sensory experiences.
Methods leading to (–)-, (+)-, and (±)-carvone have been reviewed, The technical production of (–)-carvone is based on the widely available (+)-limonene; the most favored route is that epitomized in Chart 1. Though the steps involved are simple, their exploitation is a wellguarded secret, There is no similar commercialscale production of (+)-carvone because the basic materials for its synthesis are not as readily available. However, sooner or later the rising demand for this ketone will ensure that it, too, will be produced synthetically.
I’d like to relax the pursuit of data and interpretation and discuss instead research philosophy. Since my responsibility is to direct research for both fragrances and flavors I must discuss both, even though I recognize that the majority of this audience is primarily interested in fragrance.
There are over 1700 substances used as flavoring materials in the United States. Many of these are in use in Europe as well. This compilation is an attempt to list all such substances alphabetically both by principal name and by all synonyms as well as to provide reference to the various lists both in the U.S. and Europe that contain these substances. This listing has no legal status. It should, therefore, be used for reference purposes only.
The flavor and fragrance industry has, for a long time, been conscientious about the safety of its products, From the very beginning it has participated in the development of safety evaluations and regulations for flavors and fragrances, both in the US and Europe. In this paper the developments of both flavors and fragrances will be summarized. The difference in approach in these two areas will be discussed, as well as possible future developments.